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Title, writer's name, course title, professor's name and date, center aligned on the title page . Juan Cervantes

History 172

Professor Tina

February 23, 2011

Header contains author's last name and page number. Cervantes 2

Egyptian pyramids are truly a magnum opus of monumental structures ever built by humans. As of 2008 nearly 138 pyramids had been discovered in Egypt by the canvassers1. These pyramids remind us of the pharaohs of Egypt who had established a stable government in the fertile Nile Valley. When a pharaoh died, it was believed that he became the 'King of the Dead'2.Therefore, with the sacred, pointed stones called the 'Benben'a pyramid was built for him as shelter for the life hereafter. Though it is universally believed that there were Seven Wonders of the Ancient World,the only one still in existence is Pyramid of Khufu at Giza, Egypt. These pyramids are also counted among the biggest structures ever built.The most primitiveidentified Egyptian pyramids are discovered at Saqqara, northwest of Memphis. Among these, the first is the Pyramid of Djoser believed to be built during 2630 BCE to 266 BCE during the 3rd dynasty. These pyramids are a valuable legacy and an endless saga but still there are some outlandish endorsements by various authors 'An alignment to the dog star Sirius, sacred to the ancient Egyptians, has caused some to suggest a link between the pyramids of Egypt and Mexico.'3

Statistics cited with an endnote.

Quote from a book cited with an endnote.
The Builders of the Pyramids of Egypt Heading is centered.

Among many others, it is a common misapprehension that the pyramids of Egypt were built by foreigners and slaves. On the contrary, it has been portrayed in the excavated skeletons that the builders were country dweller Egyptians. These constructors were overseen by the pharaoh's supervisors. Although there is no illustration of female builders, certain female skeletons have been discovered that indicate wear which proposes they labored with hefty stones for extended periods of time. As far as the number of builders is concerned, there are various reports, 'The Greek historian Herodotus visited Giza in 450 BC he was told by Egyptian priests that the Great Pyramid had taken 400000 men 20 years to build, working in three-month shifts 100000 men at a time'4.It is believed that to build only the Pyramids at Gaza, nearly 30,000 workers were employed for more than 80 years.

The Most Renowned Pyramids

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Some experts count these pyramids a great gift for the world 'The Pyramids were built more than 3000 years ago and are probably Egypt's greatest gift to the world'5. Undoubtedly, the most famous pyramids are the pyramids at Giza known as Pyramid of Khufu, Great Pyramidor the Pyramid of Cheops. Two other famous pyramids at Giza are Pyramid of Khafreand Pyramid of Menkaure. Another famous but unfortunately most destroyed pyramid is found at Abu Rawash, the Pyramid of Djedefre who was Khufu's son and successor. 'Abu Rawash is the site of Egypt's most northerly pyramid'6.

Some other well-known pyramids are Pharaoh Nebka'a pyramid at Zawyet el-Aryan, pyramids at Abu Sir, pyramids at Saqqara, pyramids of Snofru, commonly known as the Bent Pyramid, at Dahshur, pyramidsat Mazghuna, pyramidsAmenemhat I and his son, Senusret at Lisht, pyramids of Sneferu at Meidum, pyramids or Amenemhet III at Hawara and pyramid of Senusret II at el-Lahun.7
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Egyptian pyramids are a true symbol of beyond belief construction by motivated human beings and the great, authoritative pharaohs of olden ages. These pyramids are one of the major sources of revenue generation of Egypt as they are the attraction of millions of the tourists from around the world every year. Their exquisiteness cannot be captured in words or pictures and to feel their charm, one must visit the fantastic and dreamlike NileValley.

Paper concluded with writers personal views.

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Only last name, book title and page number refer to an earlier note by same author.
  1. Michael Slackman, In the Shadow of a Long Past, Patiently Awaiting the Future, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/17/world/middleeast/17cairo.html

  2. Ian Shaw, The Oxford history of ancient Egypt, 2003, 371.

  3. Colin Wilson,Atlas of holy places and sacred sites, 1996,84.

  4. Wilson, Atlas of holy places and sacred sites, 14.

  5. Black Enterprise - Vol. 10,Magazine, Egypt: the Gift of the Nile, Page 75

  6. Michael Ritter, Dating the Pyramids. Retrieved 13 April 2005

  7. Wikipedia,Egyptian pyramids,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_pyramids#cite_note-Ritter2003-4
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Enterprise, Black. - Vol. 10, Magazine, Egypt: the Gift of the Nile.Page 75.

Shaw, Ian. The Oxford history of ancient Egypt.2003. 371.

Slackman, Michael. In the Shadow of a Long Past, Patiently Awaiting the Future, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/17/world/middleeast/17cairo.html

Ritter, Michael.Dating the Pyramids. 13 April 2005.

Wikipedia,Egyptian pyramids, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_pyramids#cite_ note-Ritter2003-4

Wilson, Colin.Atlas of holy places and sacred sites.1996. 84.

Wilson. Atlas of holy places and sacred sites. 14.

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List alphabetized with author's last name, authors' names are inverted.