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Example of Science Lesson Plan:Water

Example of Science Lesson Plan:Water

Grade III- Science

Objectives

  • Identify the uses of soil
  • Compare the different kinds of soil as to their color, texture and size of particleso Perform an experiment
  • Participate in the classroom energizers

Subject Matter
Reference

Sources of Water- pictures, puzzles, manila paper, cartolina.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soil

Learning Activities

A. Review: Ways on how to protect the Soil.

Clay soil is tightly packed dirt that clumps into dense clots of soil when wet. When dry, clay soil is hard and difficult to penetrate and leads to poor drainage. Plant roots, then, are unable to pierce the soil and take up nutrients if the soil is dried out, and the roots tend to become waterlogged once the soil is dampened. You can loosen clay soil by aerating the soil, adding amendments and growing cover crops.

Aerating

You can use a roto-tiller to aerate soil. A roto-tiller has circular blades with teeth that tear up the top of the soil as you move the machine along the surface. Breaking up the surface allows oxygen to enter the soil, thereby breaking it down and loosening it. You can then further break down the soil using a shovel and pitchfork to turn the soil. Aerating, however, is not a long-term solution to turning clay soil into a viable home for plants. It should be used in conjunction with amendments added to the soil.

Amendments

Organic compost added to clay soil will encourage necessary bacteria, fungi, humus and earthworms to thrive within the clay soil. The presence of these elements will naturally loosen the clay soil, resulting in better drainage and easier penetration by plant roots. Gypsum can also be added to loosen clay soil. Gypsum is made up of calcium and sulpher, both organic materials. Adding gypsum to clay soil causes flocculation, a grouping together of the clay particles so there is more oxygen between the particles. It makes the soil less clumpy.

Cover Crop

Sometimes referred to as green manure, cover crops can be grown in clay soil, and then the crop turned into the soil. Crops such as barley, alfalfa or bell beans have tough roots that burrow into the clay soil. Before the cover crop comes to maturity, or goes to seed, you can turn the crop into the soil. This method naturally replenishes the soil with nutrients while loosening the tightly packed clay soil. The crops break down within the soil, encouraging friendly bacteria and fungus and may result in an increase in earthworm activity. Turning the immature cover crop into the soil also works to aerate the soil. The soil then is not only amended with a naturally occurring compost material, but is also loosened when the crop is dug into the soil.

Maintenance

With the presence of friendly bacteria, fungus and earthworms in your clay soil, plants have a better chance of establishing healthy root systems and so may thrive in the soil. To keep the soil healthy, add a layer of much with each seasonal planting, and continue to add amendments as needed

  • Drill: Solving a Picture puzzle ( by group)
    • Let the students analyze the pictures to be shown by the teacher.
    • Students will give their inputs/observations/thoughts about the picture.
  • Lesson Proper:

Discussion about water, its sources and usefulness. Water is the common name applied to the liquid form (state) of the hydrogen and oxygen compound H2O. Pure water is an odorless, tasteless, clear liquid. Water is one of nature's most important gifts to mankind. Essential to life, a person's survival depends on drinking water.

Water is one of the most essential elements to good health -- it is necessary for the digestion and absorption of food; helps maintain proper muscle tone; supplies oxygen and nutrients to the cells; rids the body of wastes; and serves as a natural air conditioning system. Health officials emphasize the importance of drinking at least eight glasses of clean water each and every day to maintain good health.

Since water contains no calories and can serve as an appetite suppressant and helps the body metabolize stored fat, it may possibly be one of the most significant factors in losing weight. In his book, titled "The Snowbird Diet" Dr. Donald Robertson says the body will not function properly without enough water and discusses the importance of drinking plenty of water for permanent weight loss: "Drinking enough water is the best treatment for fluid retention; the overweight person needs more water than the thin one; water helps to maintain proper muscle tone; water can help relieve constipation; drinking water is essential to weight loss.

Water is a key component in determining the quality of our lives. Today, people are concerned about the quality of the water they drink. Although water covers more than 70% of the Earth, only 1% of the Earth's water is available as a source of drinking. Yet, our society continues to contaminate this precious resource. Water is known as a natural solvent. Before it reaches the consumer's tap, it comes into contact with many different substances, including organic and inorganic matter, chemicals, and of there contaminants. Many public water systems treat water with chlorine to destroy disease-producing contaminants that may be present in the water. Although disinfection is an important step in the treatment of potable water, the taste and odor of chlorine is objectionable. And, the disinfectants that are used to prevent disease, can create byproducts which may pose significant health risks. Today, drinking water treatment at the point-of-use is no longer a luxury, it is a necessity! Consumers are taking matters into their own hands and are now determining the quality of the water they and their families will drink by installing a drinking water system that will give them clean, refreshing, and healthier water.

Properties: The freezing point of water is 0° C (32° F), and its boiling point is 100° C (212° F). Water reaches its maximum density at 4° C (39° F) and expands upon freezing. Water combines with salts to form hydrates and reacts with metal oxides to form acids (see Acids and Bases).

Occurrence: Water is the only substance that occurs at ordinary temperatures in all three states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. As a solid, ice, it forms glaciers, frozen lakes and rivers, snow, hail, and frost. It is liquid as rain and dew, and it covers three-quarters of the earth's surface in swamps, lakes, rivers, and oceans. Water also occurs in the soil and beneath the earth's surface as a vast groundwater reservoir. As gas, or water vapor, it occurs as fog, steam, and clouds.


Water in Life: Water makes up 50 to 90 percent of the weight of living things. Protoplasm is a solution of water and fats, carbohydrates, proteins, and salts. Water transports, combines, and chemically breaks down these substances. Water also aids the metabolic breakdown of proteins and carbohydrates.

Natural Water Cycle: The continuous movement of water between the earth and the atmosphere is the hydrological cycle. Water vapor from water and land surfaces and from living cells circulates through the atmosphere and falls as rain or snow. When it reaches the earth, water either flows into streams and then into oceans or lakes, or it enters, or infiltrates the soil. Some water becomes soil moisture, which may evaporate directly or move up through the roots of plants and be released by leaves. Some water percolates downward, accumulating in the so-called zone of saturation to form the groundwater reservoir, the upper surface of which is the water table. Under natural conditions, the water table rises in response to inflowing water and then declines as water drains into natural outlets such as wells and springs.

Composition: Because water dissolves numerous substances in large amounts, pure water rarely occurs in nature. Precipitation absorbs carbon dioxide and other gases, as well as traces of organic and inorganic material from the atmosphere. Because water reacts with minerals in the soil and rocks, surface and groundwater may contain many different dissolved substances. Surface waters may also contain domestic sewage and industrial wastes. Groundwater from shallow wells may contain nitrogen compounds and chlorides, but water from deep wells generally contains only dissolved minerals. Seawater contains many soluble compounds in addition to salt.

Water Purification: Impurities are removed from water by screening, sedimentation, filtration, chlorination, or irradiation. See also Sewage Disposal. Aeration saturates water with air, usually by spraying fountains of water into the air. Aeration removes odors and tastes caused by decomposing organic matter, industrial wastes, and some gases. Various salts and metals cause hardness in water. Hardness may be removed by boiling, by adding sodium carbonate and lime, or by filtering through natural or artificial zeolites.

Water Desalinization: Three desalinization processes, which involve evaporating salt water and then condensing the resulting steam, are known as multiple-effect evaporation, vapor-compression distillation, and flash evaporation. Freezing is another desalinization method, based on the different freezing points of fresh and salt water. Ice crystals are separated from the salt brine, washed, and melted into fresh water. In reverse osmosis, pressure forces fresh water through a membrane that does not allow minerals to pass. In electrodialysis, the positive and negative ions of the dissolved salt are removed from water by an electric current through special membranes.

These fine drinking water systems reduce a wide range of contaminants of health concern for a low cost per gallon. The superior effectiveness of solid carbon block systems is confirmed by testing and certification by NSF International; independent laboratory tests; certification by the State of California Department of Health Services; and more importantly, by the more than two million satisfied customers throughout the world. The performance of the solid carbon block filter technology exceeds that of all other filter types and meets only the highest standards for quality!

  • Wrap Around:
    Students will share their learning's regarding the topic and state the ways on how they could apply these to their daily living.

Evaluation

Draw a situation that shows the usefulness of water to the people.