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Example of Typology

Typology is a word with multiple meanings and contexts related to its application:

Biblical -The use of allegory in theology, particularly between the Old Testament in the New Testament.
Anthropology - The division of culture using racial groupings.
Civil engineering, architecture and urban planning - The taxonomy and classification the buildings, structures and urban areas.
Linguistics - The classification of languages according to structure, origin and linguistic morphology.
Psychology - Personality types

Examples of Typology:

Arabic and Hebrew are typologically categorized as Semitic languages.
One of the few typological similarities between Chinese and Japanese culture is the use of common written language, which was imported into Japan by Buddhist monks.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typology_%28theology%29
http://phonology.cogsci.udel.edu/~heinz/classes/608-S08/handouts/03week-OT-typology.pdf

Image Example of Typology:

The Ascension from a speculum humanae salvationis ca. 1430.

Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the new covenant. In the sermon on the mount he commented on the law. Some scholars consider this to be an antitype of the proclamation of the ten commandments or mosaic covenant by moses from mount sinai.